Using Storm Water Harvesting as a Water Management Tool in Saudi Arabia

by Chloe Soltis

The natural landscape of Saudi Arabia is quite dry and has few natural freshwater resources. Currently, the main freshwater source is desalinated seawater, a product that is expensive because it uses electricity generated from fossil fuels. In addition, a large portion of Saudi Arabia’s population has moved from rural to urban areas, which has changed the landscape’s inherent hydrology, causing large urban floods to plague the city once a year. Guizani (2016) believed that rain water harvesting could be a green solution to both of these issues. Continue reading

Angling Industry Threatened by Climate Change

by Patrick Shore

A study conducted by Penn State University revealed that climate change is threatening one of our countries oldest and most beloved past times: fishing. Research conducted by Dr. Tyrell DeWeber indicates that rising air and river water temperatures in the eastern United States will drive the brook trout upstream in search of colder water. Dr. DeWeber predicts that anglers may be forced to travel up to 450 miles in the near future to fish for brook trout. The disappearance of these fish is detrimental to many states who use fishing license fees to fund wildlife conservation, as well as to many outdoor stores and other small businesses associated with angling. Trout anglers spent $3.6 billion in 2011, which translated to an estimated $8.3 billion total economic impact, supporting thousands of jobs and hundreds of millions of dollar in salaries and tax revenues. Continue reading

Climate Change and Archeology

by Alejandro Sandell-Gandara

Adam Johnson describes how archeologists are observing tsunami surges as a way to predict the impact of rising sea levels on archeological sites. In 2011 the 9.0 magnitude Tohoku earthquake created a tsunami that caused damage to Japan and communities across the pacific. The costal archaeological sites at Pu’uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park on Hawai’i were affected by the tsunami.

The Pu’uhonua archaeological site in the coast of Kona is significant due to its ceremonial complex. On the site there is the Hale o Keawe temple which served as a royal mausoleum. The site is located on the coast line and surrounded by a stone wall to the east and south. The site has been excavated by several archeologists and determined to be originally related to chief Ehu-kai-milano in the 1500s. In the 1600s, Umi-a-Liloa built the stone wall around the site. An analysis and excavation of the bedrock shoreline shows evidence of activities such as dyeing of fishnets, processing seaweed, and pounding fish bait.

Tsunamis, hurricanes, and high surf caused damage to this site. The first documented tsunami occurred in 1819; a two-meter-high wave caused by a submarine fault in Chile struck the archeological site from the northwest, filled the royal fishponds with stones and sand, and broke down the northern part of the stone wall. Since 1900, twenty-four tsunamis have been recorded in Hawai’i with eleven causing significant damage.

In 1992, hurricane Iniki struck Hawai’i and caused 143 mph winds and water levels thirty feet above normal. The hurricane damaged the archaeological site by destroying structures and removing surface sand and sediments.

The damage caused by rising sea levels, hurricanes, and tsunamis can be analyzed and used to predict the effects of climate change. The destruction caused by these natural disasters confirm that climate change would cause major damage to archeological sites in coastal areas.

Adam Johnson, Lisa Marrack & Sara Dolan (2015) Threats to Coastal Archaeological Sites and the Effects of Future Climate Change: Impacts of the 2011 Tsunami and an Assessment of Future Sea-Level Rise at Hōnaunau, Hawai’i, The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 10:2, 232-252, DOI: 10.1080/15564894.2014.980472


The Great Climate Debate Circa 2006

by Paola Salomon

There is still much controversy about whether human activity is causing global warming, and whether what appears to be a climate change is simply normal climate variability. Assenza and Reddy (2006) mainly debate the causes and consequences of climate change and discuss two different points of views: that of sceptics and supporters. While the sceptics do not want to take action, the supporters claim that we cannot postpone dealing with this issue anymore. Supporters are afraid that the environmental and socio-economic costs of climate change are significant, while the sceptics are fearful about the economic consequences of attempting to reverse climate change. Continue reading

Climate Change: Wildlife Then and Now

by Jen Petrova

As a lover of wildlife and birds, Franzen begins his article by questioning the effects of climate change on birds. Many reputable sources deem that bird biodiversity and populations will be endangered by climate change, however Franzen argues that birds are capable of adapting. In fact, argues that North American birds may become even more diverse due to climate change. Needless to say, Franzen is not convinced of the immediate threat to birds that global warming presents. In this article, he explores climate change in relation to democracy, Peru, and Costa Rica. Continue reading

The Impact of Climate Change on Aedes aegypti Behavior in Latin America and the Caribbean

by Shannon O’Neill

Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has impacted precipitation and temperatures, which have been associated with increases in seasonal outbreaks of dengue fever. However, such correlations are often speculative due to the complexity of interactions involved in vector-borne diseases. Researchers Chadee and Martinez (2015) focused on the adaptive behaviors of the Aedes aegypti mosquito in efforts to fill some of the research gaps typically associated with the research of these diseases. This mosquito is a successful vector for various vector-borne diseases, including dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya, and has shown adaptive behaviors. This research will provide the information to create better vector control strategies that can be applied in order to limit climate change impacts on the resurgence of these diseases. Continue reading

The Best Way to Regulate the Indigenous Dugong Harvest is to Let Tradition Run Its Course

by Wendy Noreña

Indigenous communities around increasingly finding that their traditional fishing practices clash with new, externally-imposed conservation policies and societal expectations. Finding an appropriate answer to these disagreements is difficult, especially since there are not enough data about most traditional, or even modern, marine fisheries to be able to create accurate scientific models that could help guide potential management strategies. Marsh et al. (2015) investigate the indigenous Dugong harvest in the Torres Straits, an area that spans the ocean space between Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Northern Australian coast. Based on Marsh et al.’s preliminary research, the harvests here have been taking place for 4,000 to 7,000 years and have been “substantial,” for 400 to 500 years. With concerns about the conservation of ecosystems becoming more prevalent and politically involved, more and more people in Australia and PNG are calling for a ban or for restrictions to Dugong harvests. So far, regulations have already been set in place to limit hunting in certain areas and with certain equipment, but, because of the Australian Native Title Act, the Torres Strait islanders are lawfully allowed to hunt in what is known as their, “sea country,” as long as they follow a few restrictions. Marsh et al. argue that previous studies which stated that dugong harvests are largely unsustainable are actually incomplete due to the absence of good population and hunting data. Marsh et al. estimate that the Dugong harvest is sustainable and suggest that typical conservation methods should not be used to manage the Dugong harvests. Instead, they suggest that until sufficient data is available to use more popular management methods, a cultural reinforcement strategy currently in use, which involves ancient, traditional limitations on when, where, and how many Dugong can be harvested, should be implemented to manage this harvesting activity. These cultural reinforcements, driven by the indigenous communities themselves, must be coupled with detailed hunting reports as well as collaborations between government officials and indigenous leaders to create a more efficiently tailored management system for the dugong harvest. Continue reading