Typhoid Fever Bacteria Detection in Fecal Contaminated Kathmandu Drinking Water

by Natalie Creekmur

  The quality of drinking water in the densely populated city of is a major concern. The Kathmandu region is home to an endemic of typhoid fever, a disease that causes a severe systemic infection in the human body. The bacterial pathogens that cause typhoid fever are Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A). It is generally accepted that these two types of bacteria are transmitted via ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water or via human-to-human contact. In Kathamandu, the main water sources for the population are gravity-dependent stone waterspouts. The rainfall and snowmelt that sustain the waterspouts collect in soft-rock aquifers that act as natural reservoirs. This water is untreated and vulnerable to contamination. As a result, the areas surrounding the stone waterspouts experience increased S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections in the population. Continue reading