Climate Change: Wildlife Then and Now

by Jen Petrova

As a lover of wildlife and birds, Franzen begins his article by questioning the effects of climate change on birds. Many reputable sources deem that bird biodiversity and populations will be endangered by climate change, however Franzen argues that birds are capable of adapting. In fact, argues that North American birds may become even more diverse due to climate change. Needless to say, Franzen is not convinced of the immediate threat to birds that global warming presents. In this article, he explores climate change in relation to democracy, Peru, and Costa Rica. Continue reading

A Strategy for Response to Climate Change in Marine Conservation

by Weronika Konwent

     An effect of global warming is an increase in sea-surface temperatures (SST), which impacts the distribution and range of corals. As temperatures increase, coral distribution will shift poleward. This is problematic because current marine protected areas do not take into account the distribution effects of climate change. Continual shifting of MPAs as conditions worsen is more than likely to meet political and logistical roadblocks. Makino et al (2014) established an integrative system by which to determine priority selection of habitats for MPAs. This research aims to create a process through which climate change can be factored into subsequent MPA planning, and will cater to coral distribution trends not only now but in the future as well. Continue reading

Protecting Island Biodiversity

by Alexander Birk

Island biodiversity is of paramount importance on a global scale. The islands of the world contain twenty percent of all terrestrial plant and animal species. In addition the rate of endemic species on islands is much greater than on main lands, and island species are facing many threats. Over half of the most recent extinctions on the planet come from species inhabiting islands. In addition one third of all terrestrial species that are currently threatened with extinction are island-dwelling species (Couchamp et al. 2014). Continue reading

Reduced Fecundity in Wood Frogs due to Warmer Winters

by Anna Alquitela

From 2006 to 2012, Michael Benard conducted research at a field station in southeastern Michigan where he used drift fences and pitfall traps to capture both adult and metamorphosing wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) at six wetlands (Benard 2014). Benard’s goal was to determine if a relationship exists between date of breeding and winter temperature and precipitation, and between the female reproductive rate (fecundity) and winter temperature and precipitation. Using these data, he was also able to discern if breeding dates affect changes in metamorphosis timing, length of the larval period, weight at metamorphosis, and larval survival. Continue reading

Addressing Climate Change in Australian Marine Ecosystems

by Weronika Konwent

Australia’s diverse marine environment is under threat from varied effects of climate change such as marine heat waves, ocean acidification, floods, and tropical cyclones. Various organisms spanning many habitats are affected, including fish, seabirds, marine turtles, coral, and marine invertebrates, many of which are keystone species that influence the structure of a particular community. It is important to study and understand the impact of ecological changes on the habitat and its inhabitants in order to preserve them as effectively as possible. Continue reading

Red Fox Populations Encroach on Arctic Fox Ranges due to Warmer Temperatures

by Hilary Bruegl

In the nineteenth century Arctic tundra of Finnmark, Norway, the Arctic fox population declined to near extinction and have been recovering minimally despite strict protection. Hamel et al. (2013) investigated potential factors involved in suppressing healthy recolonization of prior territories, including encroaching red fox populations and variation in prey availability. By baiting and periodically photographing the area, the authors found red foxes to be the most important influence on the Arctic fox population in northeast Norway. Not only are red foxes more comfortable in the warming temperatures of the tundra, but there has also been a significant reduction in fox hunting, allowing the red fox population to flourish. Rodent population fluctuations were first documented alongside fox populations as a limiting factor of population growth; however, they had fewer effects than either land cover changes or red fox infiltration. Continue reading