Focus on outputs produced the least impact on climate. For example, increased yields that resulted from an increase in efficiency of fertilizer usage, was more effective in reducing emissions than increasing yields by agricultural land area. It was also found that the AW2 scenario minimized greenhouse emissions, not because AW2 was marked by yield improvements, but because it maintained 1961 standards of living and thus was characterized by an overall lower pressure on land by the population. Therefore land expansion, also known as extensification, was lessened in this particular scenario.
It was found out that tillage caused an increase in the soil c co2 fluxes, as there was an increase of the air transport coefficient from soil loosening. Precipitation also influenced the soil co2 flux, which increased after rainfall. Soil co2 fluxes also increased when there was increased substrate availability, which in turn occurs when there is soil organic content accumulation, crop residue production and fertilization. Most importantly, the level of soil co2 flux levels was caused by the fluctuation of the soil between dry and wet points. Furthermore, the combination of rainfall with either a no-tillage system or conservation tillage system led to increased co2 fluxes.