From modeling and comparisons, the results illustrate the prevalence of aerosol presence in both global and regional climate response. Further, forcing in the northern hemisphere has a particularly strong effect on the Arctic climate. As the forcing at the mid-latitude northern hemisphere oscillates between positive and negative, the temperatures of the Arctic transition from warmer to cooler. It is estimated that aerosols are one of the main contributors to the increased Arctic surface temperature; responsible for 1.09 ± 0.81° C of the 1.48 ± 0.28°C increased warming. As increased aerosol forcing continues, coupled black carbon and tropospheric ozone contributions, Arctic warming will also increase
The main model employed was the NER, which calculated the amount of sediment in the basin and presented the information at different time scales. These data were then converted to gross soil loss by dividing NER by the fraction of eroded soil that is delivered outside of the basin, or sediment delivery ratio (SDR). This basic model was altered and combined with other data to derive a monthly NER model, a gross erosion evaluation, and an estimation of tolerable soil loss. The models demonstrated many essential details about erosion and erosion patterns in the Sele River Basin. First, from 1973-1007, only 10 years exceeded the long-term average of soil loss, and soil erosion compromised of 60% of total loss, indicating that the determination of long-term erosion can be heavily influenced by a small number of events. Also, it was illustrated that anthropogenic events, such as landscaping and irrigation increased the erosion of soil during the considered time period. Lastly, the most important conclusion was that the time that is most dangerous for soil is that which follows tillage. Erosion is rampant in the August to November months, indicating that measures should be taken to increase soil coverage, such as conservative soil tillage and increasing the use of perennial cover crops.