The International Panel on Climate Change has indicated that rising temperatures in Brazil, due to its location in topical and subtropical areas, will cause setbacks in its agricultural industry. Filho and Moraes (2015) wanted to understand not only the relationship between climate change and agriculture production, but also the greater impact of climate change on the Brazilian economy. They take into account the benefits that would come to sugarcane and cassava, as well as look at the effects on the Brazilian labor market, by attempting to examine how climate change affects how income is distributed. Their model is based on three distinct databases that are the Brazilian-output and input table, Brazilian National House survey, and the Brazilian expenditure survey, and incorporates previous models. One noted flaw in their design is that the base framework for their model is data collected in 2005. Therefore, adaptations to climate change that may have taken place after the projections had been forecasted-for example, effects on crop viability-may not have been included leaving room for improvement in the future. Continue reading →
Our newest book, published on May 6, 2015 and available at Amazon.com for $19.95.
The focus of this book is the interactions between energy, ecology, and climate change, as well as a few of the responses of humanity to these interactions. It is not a textbook, but a series of chapters discussing subtopics in which the authors were interested and wished to write about. The basic material is cutting-edge science; technical journal articles published within the last year, selected for their relevance and interest. Each author selected eight or so technical papers representing his or her view of the most interesting current research in the field, and wrote summaries of them in a journalistic style that is free of scientific jargon and understandable by lay readers. This is the sort of science writing that you might encounter in the New York Times, but concentrated in a way intended to give as broad an overview of the chapter topics as possible. None of this research will appear in textbooks for a few years, so there are not many ways that readers without access to a university library can get access to this information.
This book is intended be browsed—choose a chapter topic you like and read the individual sections in any order; each is intended to be largely stand-alone. Reading all of them will give you considerable insight into what climate scientists concerned with energy, ecology, and human effects are up to, and the challenges they face in understanding one of the most disruptive—if not very rapid—event in human history; anthropogenic climate change. The Table of Contents follows: Continue reading →
According to the background research done by `Ben A. Smith et al. temperatures and total annual precipitation across most of North America are expected to rise. They suggest that these expected changes would impact areas negatively especially if those areas are developing and population is increasing. The negative impacts arise from how food and water contamination can be increased by the longer survival of both old and new pathogens as well as the extended peak season for many microbial diseases. An example they provided was of Salmonella infections, which correlated with rising global air temperatures in most continents besides Europe, negated the rise in infections by using human intervention through public health. This intervention was implemented once a quantities microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was utilized. QMRA models are typically developed assuming historical/static climate conditions. These researchers suggest, however, that adding climate change factors in food/water safety QRMA models make them increasingly complex due to the varying range of relevancy of variables. According to the authors, a framework is necessary in order to better understand the large data alongside the QRMA model elements so as to asses the potential impacts of changing climate variables on public health. Continue reading →
Rühl et al. (2015) writing in Biological Conservation attempted to determine whether predicted changes in temperature as caused by global warming would be detrimental to the survival of endangered arable weed species, which play an important role in increasing biodiversity. The results of the study were multiple. The authors concluded that endangered arable weed species germinated significantly less than the common arable weed species under increased temperature conditions and preferred lower optimal germination temperatures (24°C ± 3.5) than common arable weed species (31°C ± 0.5). Continue reading →