Pakistan’s Developing Economy in a Warming World

by JP Kiefer

Despite contributing little to greenhouse gas emissions, the poorest countries and people will be negatively affected by climate change the earliest and most severely. This is due to an increased inability to adapt to changes in crop production, water resources, and human health. Akram and Hamid (2015) determined that Pakistan would be one of the countries hit hardest by climate change. Continue reading

Tax Policy Issues in Designing a Carbon Tax

by Makari Krause

Carbon taxes have long been thought of as the most efficient and successful way to decrease GHG emissions and thereby curb climate change. Marron and Toder (2014) examine some of the challenges associated with this approach to carbon mitigation, namely setting the tax rate, collecting the tax, and using the revenue. In order to internalize the GHG emissions externality one must tax those emissions at a rate that brings the social cost in line with the private cost. This is referred to as the social cost of carbon and is the price of carbon that would maximize social welfare. Theoretically this approach seems ideal but there are many difficulties involved with determining the social cost of carbon. Determining the true economic effects of GHG emissions is quite difficult and requires complex modeling. These models operate on a set of assumptions that are controversial in many cases. Leading to a wide range of estimates for the social cost of carbon with a mean of $196/ton and a standard deviation of $322/ton. Another important question to ask when calculating cost is whether that cost will be evaluated on a global or national scale. The costs of climate change and the benefits of mitigation are global but often US policymakers exclude global considerations. Continue reading

How Many Benefits Does Commercial Forestry Provide?

by Emil Morhardt

Forestry economists worry about whether foresters can claim more societal benefits, including offsetting the effects of climate change, from forestry than merely the increased supply of trees; in econ-speak, “…what change in human well-being results from increasing, reducing or qualitatively varying…” the supply of ecosystem services commercial forests provide? Colin Price (2014) addresses this question largely in the abstract by providing an overview of eight general approaches to valuing non-market effects, which, although they break little new ground, provide an extremely clear overview of a generally murky subject. Continue reading