Usage of Biochar Leads to Higher Yields and Methane Levels but Lower Nitrogen Dioxide Levels

Rice is a staple crop in many Asian countries, including China<!–[if supportFields]> XE “China” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>. However, like many other crops, rice<!–[if supportFields]> XE “Oryza sativa (rice)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> also releases greenhouse gases. In fact, rice paddies are one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas production and so there is a great need to be concerned about them vis-à-vis climate change. In order to decrease the amount of greenhouse gases released from the soil, the application of biochar, which is a form of charcoal, was tried. Zhang et al. (2010) also changed soil conditions by the application of N<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen, N” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> fertilizer<!–[if supportFields]> XE “fertilizer” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>.  There was interaction between biochar, N fertilization<!–[if supportFields]> XE “fertilization” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>, and the inherent soil conditions, and methane<!–[if supportFields]> XE “methane (CH4)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> emissions were sensitive to the interaction in soil between biochar and N fertilization. The authors conclude that there is still some hesitation about the usage of biochar, but found increased yield level and methane emissions with the application of biochar and decreased nitrous oxide<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrous oxide (N2O)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> emissions.—<!–[if supportFields]> TC ” Nitya Chhiber “\l 3 \n <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> Nitya Chhiber

Zhang et al. generated data for this study from a plot of land that was divided into three parts and all treatments were implemented in triplicate. Some sub-plots received N<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen, N” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> fertilization<!–[if supportFields]> XE “fertilization” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> and biochar, whilst others were controls. The concentration of nitrous oxide<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrous oxide (N2O)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> and methane<!–[if supportFields]> XE “methane (CH4)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> released was measured by gas chromatography throughout one whole rice<!–[if supportFields]> XE “Oryza sativa (rice)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>-growing season in southeast China<!–[if supportFields]> XE “China” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>.
The addition of biochar decreased nitrous dioxide emissions. On the other hand, methane<!–[if supportFields]> XE “methane (CH4)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> emissions increased. Another difference between nitrous oxide<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrous oxide (N2O)” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> and methane emissions was such that nitrous oxide emission levels decreased regardless of the presence of N<!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen, N” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> XE “nitrogen” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> fertilization<!–[if supportFields]> XE “fertilization” <![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>; on the other hand, methane emission levels were sensitive to the interaction of biochar with N fertilization. However, in the case of carbon dioxide, the addition of biochar in soil increased carbon dioxide emissions. There is still some uncertainty with regards to carbon emission, which can be the basis of future studies. Furthermore, in soils containing biochar and no fertilizers, there were higher yields compared to soils containing biochar and N fertilization.

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